This build (3037) scales the app chrome fonts to hugemongous, unworkable size.
I'm running MATE DE, and set my DPI in appearance->fonts->details. I don't see changes here being reflected in ST though, same goes for changes in X11 configs (but it seems that you intentionally neglect these).
gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.interface text-scaling-factor
gives me 1.0
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface text-scaling-factor 0.5
does not change the look of ST.
Is there a ST setting we can experiment with?
Thanks for all the effort!